Karyotypes are pictures of chromosomes. Meaning of Chromosomes: Chromosomes are the most important constituents of the nucleus and were first observed by Holfmeister (1848) in pollen mother cell of Tradescantia and called it nuclear filaments. Telomeres function to protect the ends of chromosomes. This unique structure of chromosome keeps DNA tightly packed with histone proteins to fit inside the cell and it also helps in giving more stability to it. Chromosome Structure and Function A chromosome is a structure that almost looks like thread. There are two basic types based on function as. Autosome; Sex chromosomes. This comes in … Condensed chromatin fibers form chromosomes. Functions of chromosomes: DNA present on the chromosome not only carries most of the genetic information but also controls the hereditary transfer. Chromosomes are filamentous bodies which are typically present in the nucleus and become visible during cell division. The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can … In most organisms, one chromosome is inherited from the mother and the other is inherited from the father; to ensure that offspring carry traits from both parents. In plant and animal cells, it is found within the nucleus. The chromosomes are classified into different types based on shape and position of the centromere. Like many species of animals and plants, humans are diploid (2n), meaning that most of their chromosomes come in matched sets known as homologous pairs. They are made of one DNA molecule and protein. They also don't have any genetic information. A karyotype, like this karyotype of a human, can teach us several things about chromosomes. Special Types. Functions 6. According to the position of centromere, Types of chromosomes based on function. Scientists have given this name chromosomes as they are stained using specific dyes, chroma means colour and soma means body. A chromosome is a long, stringy aggregate of genes that carries heredity information and is formed from condensed chromatin.Chromatin is composed of DNA and proteins that are tightly packed together to form chromatin fibers. Chromosomes. Each species has its own characteristic number of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. They contain all hereditary information to determine a person's traits, ranging from hair color to height. It's crucial that certain cells, like reproductive cells, have the correct number of chromosomes in order to function properly. Halocentric chromosome: In these chromosomes, the entire length of acts as centromere. Humans, for instance, have 46 chromosomes in a typical body cell, while dogs have 78. Properties of Chromosomes. 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