During gingival inflammation, the sulcular epithelium is densely infiltrated with PMN’s and lymphocytes. It does not function during mastication and therefore is non-keratinized, soft and pliable. Smoking also stimulates melanin production, leading to exceedingly evident intraoral pigmentation 78, 79. The normal appearance of healthy gingiva is shown in Figure 6-1. As the cells move from the basal layer to the surface, they show many biochemical and morphological changes. The basal cells show a large number of hemidesmosomes firmly attaching to the lamina densa of the basal lamina. Some of these granules may be seen associated with the cell membrane. Gingiva is that portion of the oral mucosa which covers the tooth-bearing part of the alveolar bone and the cervical neck of the teeth. Normal gingiva covers the alveolar bone and tooth root to a level just … 2010 Sep 1;16(9):2891-9. It does not function during mastication and therefore is non-keratinized, soft and pliable. The anatomical width of attached gingiva increases slightly with the increasing age because of tooth eruption to compensate for occlusal wear 12. It is usually keratinized. FIGURE H. Nearly normal gingival tissue four weeks after cessation of gum chewing. The role of connective tissue in the maintenance of epithelial differentiation in the adult. The epithelium is firmly attached to the underlying connective tissue due to a high degree of integration. The structural integrity and interactions between the tooth-supporting structures are the fundamental requirements for a healthy periodontium. in labial flanges of gingival veneers and . Expression of ELAM-1 by endothelial cells is increased under the influence of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1, and bacterial lipopolysaccharides. In conclusion, gingival stippling was found to be a normal characteristic in 56.3% of 3 to 10-year-old children, without significant differences in prevalence related to arch, gender or age. Attachment: They attach the teeth to their bony housing and also to one another. These are attached to each other with desmosomes and contain many keratin filament bundles known as tonofibrils. Archives of oral biology. It extends from the base of the free gingiva to the mucogingival junction (Figure 1.5) where the keratinized epithelium of attached gingiva abruptly merges with the non-keratinized epithelium of the alveolar mucosa 3. In the posterior areas, it is less with the least width in the first premolar area (1.9 mm in the maxilla and 1.8 mm in the mandible), The mean width of attached gingiva increases from the primary dentition to permanent dentition, Epithelium-connective tissue interface, and, The epithelium is firmly attached to the underlying connective tissue due to a high degree of integration. Neural crest cells, which are derived from the neural tube play an important role in the development of teeth. There are a large number of biologically active substances that may stimulate or suppress ……………………Content available in the hard-copy of the website……………………………. The consumption of the oxygen in the healing gingiva varies according to the nature of the microscopic tissue changes. 2004 May;15(3):165-75. After fertilization of the egg, there occurs a precisely coordinated cascade of developmental processes involving cell migration, growth, differentiation and apoptosis which results in the development of craniofacial structures. Masticatory mucosa is the load-bearing mucosa during mastication. As the cells move from the basal layer to the cornified layer, their morphological characters change. Karring T, Lang NP, Löe H. The role of gingival connective tissue in determining epithelial differentiation. The dental follicle gives rise to cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and fibroblasts which are responsible for the formation of the tooth-supporting structures. This integration is further intensified by the presence of numerous serrated keratinocytes and cellular processes (pedicles) of these cells protruding into the connective tissue compartment. Adaptation: These tissues have the capability to adapt to the changes in the external environment and wear associated with aging through a continuous process of remodeling and regeneration. This integration is further intensified by the presence of numerous serrated keratinocytes and cellular processes (pedicles) of these cells protruding into the connective tissue compartment. In the, The oral mucosa has been traditionally divided into three categories: lining mucosa, specialized mucosa, and masticatory mucosa. Type 2: These are spherical in shape and show fewer dendrites, a more electron-dense cytoplasm with fewer Birbeck granules. They contain nuclei with clefts, lysosomes, centrioles, Golgi vesicles, a small amount of endoplasmic reticulum, and moderate numbers of mitochondria. Reduction or loss of stippling is a common sign of gingival disease. These cells have synaptic contacts with somatosensory afferents and are associated with the sense of light touch discrimination 82. ment, unspeciﬁc binding activity was blocked with normal horse Slightly inﬂamed gingiva showed no changes in surface mor- (for collagen type I) and normal goat serum (collagen type III and phology, i.e. 1981 Dec;52(12):743-6. Inner: Tooth surface which may be the enamel, cementum, or a part of each, depending on the position of the junctional epithelium. Odland bodies are small sub-cellular structures of size 200-300 nm. Its absence or reduction indicates … During the fourth week of development, the cranial region of the human embryo resembles a fish embryo at a comparable stage. The mean width of attached gingiva increases from the primary dentition to permanent dentition 23. Content available in the hard-copy of the website……….. The dendritic cells in the epithelium are known as Langerhan’s cells. Cytokeratins as molecular markers in the evaluation of the precise differentiation stage of human gingival epithelium reconstituted in vitro. The prevalence of gingival and periodontal disease is manifold and has not been highlighted much due to its asymptomatic and milder symptoms. It covers the floor of the mouth, ventral (underside) tongue, alveolar mucosa, cheeks, lips, and soft palate. Layers and differentiate to form during the primary dentition stage, the apex of ectoderm. Of healthy gingiva is blunted with buccal and lingual papillae which conforms the! Protects them against the noxious stimuli present in the periodontal ligament flattened and show fewer dendrites, a electron-dense... Barrier, the maximum QO is achieved on the basis of electron microscopic appearance Langerhan. Qo is achieved on the basis of electron microscopic appearance, Langerhan ’ s cells structures are the requirements. 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