This causes loss of proper binocular alignment and results either in exophoria or intermittent exotropia at near (Lavrich 2010). If the NPC is more reduced when using a non accommodative target, then the person may have a True CI; however, if NPC is reduced […] 5,6 In addition to causing discomfort with reading, CI has been Patients often complain of eye strain when reading, closing one … At the other end, a "pseudo-convergence insufficiency (an accommodative dysfunction which has, as its most prominent feature, reduced convergence at near. It is one of many Vital Visual Skills learned during our early years, as we begin to make sense of the world and how to use our eyes to take it all in.. Convergence Insufficiency is a common problem with the development of these skills. Journal of the American Optometric Association, April; 70(4): 225-232, 1999.) To study the effectiveness of pencil pushups treatment (PPT) for the treatment of convergence insufficiency in a clinical situation. Convergence is the coordinated movement and focus of our two eyes inward on close objects, including phones, tablets, computers, and books. Do NPC both with and without an accommodative target. Blepharoclonus; Convergence Insufficiency; Slow Hypometric Saccades in all directions of gaze; Saccadic Breakdown of Smooth Pursuit Creator Shirley H. Wray, M.D., Ph.D., FRCP, Professor of Neurology Harvard Medical School, Director, Unit for Neurovisual … If the eyes do drift out, the person is likely to have double vision. Convergence Insufficiency (CI) is characterized by a decreased ability to converge the eyes and maintain binocular fusion while focusing on a near target. To differentiate between a True Convergence Insufficiency vs a Pseudo Convergence Insufficiency (underlying accommodative insufficiency issue), one can utilize NPC testing. Convergence Insufficiency (CI) is a common binocular (two-eyed) vision disorder in which the eyes do not work at near easily. CI is usually accompanied by a reduced near point of convergence (NPC), decreased convergence amplitudes or an exodeviation (usually > 10 prism diopters) at near. Along the line is a range of "mixed bag" dysfunctions, either led by a fusional convergence problem at near or accommodative dysfunction. 3. METHODS Sixty adult males over the age of 40 years (median age, 65 years) with convergence insufficiency … Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a common binocular vision disorder affecting 4- 6% of the population.1,2,3,4 Some have estimated its prevalence to be as high as 8.3% in school-age children and university students. with convergence insufficiency, controlled studies have not been performed, and a clinical bias exists against prescribing vision therapy for adults with convergence insufficiency. According to the research findings: After 12 weeks of PPT: CI scores only decreased from 29.3 to 25.9. 2005). 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